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By Alexandre Afonso

A time period in particular present in ecu politics, social concertation refers to cooperation among exchange unions, governments and employers in public policy-making. Social Concertation in occasions of Austerity investigates the political underpinnings of social concertation within the context of eu integration. Alexandre Afonso specializes in the rules of work mobility and unemployment safeguard in Austria and Switzerland, of Europe’s so much wealthy international locations, and he seems to be at nonpartisan policymaking as a method for compromise. With this shrewdpermanent, new research, Afonso powerfully enters the controversy at the desire for a shared social time table in post-crisis Western Europe. ** [C:\Users\Microsoft\Documents\Calibre Library]

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However, in this case as well, the structural weakening of organised interests also poses a problem, because the consultation of organisations which only represent a minority of economic actors does not guarantee compliance. 2 Knowledge and Ideas Another explanation put forward in the literature is that the rationale of concertation may have shifted from a bargaining logic to an “informational” one (Culpepper 2002). Hence, Governments engage in corporatist concertation because of their cognitive/informational dependence on social partners.

Trade unions could afford to deliver wage moderation in exchange for policy compensations because they were dealing with partners they could trust. In a context of strong party-union ties and class identity, this argument was particularly convincing. However, the ties between social democratic parties and trade unions have become looser in many countries, not least because the social base of labour unions and social democratic parties has become increasingly distinct. While unions still remain the most represented amongst blue-collar workers, the electoral base of social democrats is increasingly constituted of social and cultural specialists with potentially distinct policy preferences (Kitschelt 1994; Kriesi 1998b: 169).

A proxy indicator which can be used to assess the evolution of the structural elements of corporatism is the index of formal trade union authority in wage-setting arrangements devised by Jelle Visser (2009). This indicator takes into account the degree of fragmentation of trade unions as well as the degree of coordination of wage bargaining arrangements, and is the most up to date among available indicators of corporatism. As shown in Table 1, most countries have remained relatively stable in their positioning across time vis-à-vis one another, even though there is a clear downward trend, especially in Sweden, Denmark , Belgium and the Netherlands .

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