By Brian R. Belland
This ebook makes use of meta-analysis to synthesize learn on scaffolding and scaffolding-related interventions in STEM (science, know-how, engineering, and arithmetic) schooling. particularly, the amount examines the level to which research caliber, evaluation variety, and scaffolding features (strategy, meant final result, fading agenda, scaffolding intervention, and matched intervention) impact cognitive scholar results. It comprises distinctive descriptions of the theoretical foundations of scaffolding, scaffolding suggestions which were proposed to fulfill varied meant studying results in STEM, and linked efficacy details. additionally, the ebook describes review options and examine designs which might be used to judge the impact of scaffolding, and indicates new fields within which scaffolding recommendations that experience confirmed efficacious will be used.
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Extra resources for Instructional Scaffolding in STEM Education: Strategies and Efficacy Evidence
2011). Thus, when designing scaffolding, it is important to think about the processes and situations in which the scaffolding will be used (Akhras & Self, 2002; Belland & Drake, 2013). Activity theory explains that tools such as scaffolding do not merely transmit human action from one forum to another, as an ax transmits the force produced by swinging one’s arms to the surface area of the blade. Rather, as a psychological tool, scaffolding transforms and extends human action first in external action, and then that same transformed external action can be internalized (Belland & Drake, 2013; Kozulin, 1986).
1997). , 1997). , 2004). ACT-R also sees excessive failure as not conducive to learning and thus advocates maximizing successful practice and minimizing opportunities for excessive failure (Koedinger & Aleven, 2007). Ultimately, the goal of ACT-R is that students practice applying content knowledge to problems and, in the process, generate and optimize production rules that govern the application of such declarative knowledge to problems (Aleven, Stahl, Schworm, Fischer, & Wallace, 2003). , 1997).
4 (P. A. Cohen, Kulik, & Kulik, 1982). It is unlikely that peer scaffolding would be sufficient as a sole source of scaffolding support, as similarly abled peers do not have the content or pedagogical expertise to be able to engage in the dynamic assessment and customization that is characteristic of one-to-one scaffolding (Belland, 2014). Peers also often do not have the patience and persistence of a computer program. Furthermore, when peer scaffolding providers are at the same grade and ability level as the peer scaffolding receivers, one may question the capacity for strong scaffolding interactions.