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By Richard J. Borg and G. J. Dienes (Auth.)

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A. Quenching T h e most common technique applied to metals for the measurement of vacancy concentrations is to quickly quench a wire made from the material of interest from a succession of temperatures and measure the change in electrical resistance at liquid He temperature, which is proportional to the change in vacancy concentration, which in turn is a function of the initial annealing temperature. Fig. 3 is a schematic drawing of the essential features of an apparatus suitable for making such measurements.

When such values are combined with self-diffusion values for the total entropy and enthalpy a 0 m m Experimental Methods 31 of b o t h motion and vacancy formation, the last is calculable yielding an expression for the vacancy concentration as a function of temperature. This method does not require complete retention of the equilibrium concentra­ tion of vacancies appropriate to the initial high annealing temperature and is considered more reliable than the direct measurement of vacancy con­ centration.

Such reactions are not stochastic and, strictly speaking, should be separated from the normal of diffusion. Yet both radiation damage and sputtering form an area of solid state kinetics and are at least deserving of mention. D. The Vacancy Mechanism T h e vacancy mechanism is by far the most general and important of all the diffusion mechanisms. All cases of substitutional diffusion which have been carefully investigated appear to operate through a vacancy mechanism. As the n a m e indicates, a diffusive j u m p occurs only via an exchange of position with an adjacent vacancy.

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