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By Aaart R. Heesterman

Three diverse strains of method have contributed to the speculation of optimum making plans. One process considers the matter from the view-point of a countrywide executive and its adviser, the econometrician making plans speci­ alist. the govt can, if this is often regarded as fascinating, stimulate funding in definite instructions and discourage different fiscal actions. via quite a few financial units, it could actually effect either the full point and the distribution of funding cash over various sectors of creation. additionally, in lots of nations, a public service provider performs a few form of coordinat­ ing function within the formula of long term plans for output by means of the input­ prises region; this can variety from administrative course in so-called centrally deliberate economies, to persuasion and recommendation in 'capitalist' economies. for this reason, the general public planner needs to grasp what dis­ tribution of the nation's assets will be 'optimal'. This ends up in the development of varied types that could be defined less than the overall heading 'input-output style models'. this kind of version has been mostly constructed by way of practitioners, between whom Sandee [B2] is among the most eminent and the earliest. A later, well-developed instance of a version in accordance with this strategy is, for instance, the Czech version through Cerny et al. [Bl]. A moment method considers the matter from the viewpoint of the non-public entrepreneur and his adviser, the chief and fiscal accountant.

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THE (NON) UNIQUENESS OF THE PRICE STRUCTURE How many goods may we assume in total, relative to a certain number of operated processes? We will approach this question by way of the uniqueness of the price structure. For one good, the numeraire, we may set the price arbitrary (at unity), expressing the other prices relative to that one good. The number of remaining prices to be solved from dual restrictions is therefore the total number of economic goods, less one, the numeraire. We will have a binding dual restriction, giving rise to a price equation for each operated process.

Accordingly, we now cost the tableau in terms of 'land-cost' prices, the relevant prices being obtained from the grazing + ploughing input-output coefficients. 197. 444. 22 ALLOCATION, INVESTMENT AND EFFICIENCY PRICES We now obtain a tableau of input-output coefficients, measured in value at land efficiency prices. 00 The figures for labour have been indicated in brackets because they are assumed to be of zero value. Costs per unit of output add up to unity for 'grazing' and 'ploughing' but 'burning' is nowhere: costs are more than three times the value of output due to the wasteful use of the scarce production factor land.

With 'burning' the land is left uncultivated every other year, and is not ploughed at all, but only made free of bush and weeds by burning them off before sowing. 00 21 ALLOCATION MODELS IN ECONOMIC PLANNING a much higher crop per acre, especially if one considers the average over the years, but will also require more labour, even per unit of output of field crops. Now consider the coefficients, as given in Table II. Final outputs of 'cattle' will be meat, hides and milk, intermediate outputs of 'cattle' into 'ploughing' and 'burning' will be ploughing by oxen and also the drawing of carts with harvest from the fields to the storehouses at harvest time.

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